Basic Ability Training means training other than described above and includes maintaining and improving techniques and abilities necessary for astronauts and includes a variety of fields. For example, it includes training in English, the official language used during their stays at ISS. They also receive instruction in the Russian language for the training which will be conducted in Russia. These two languages training represents one-fourth of the total Basic Training (400 hours in total).Basic Ability is composed of the following components:
It is important for astronauts to maintain a good physical condition, so they will also learn to manage their own health and provide first aid. They will also undergo physical training regularly three times a week.
Astronauts will also receive "Crew Resource Management" training in which pilots learn to judge conditions in the cockpit, resolve problems, and make decisions. They will also be trained in photographic techniques for taking photographs from orbit, media relations training, radio communications in English, and pilot training.
There is also specialized training for astronauts. This includes survival training, EVA training, and hyperbaric (altitude) chamber training. Survival training is necessary in case of an emergency and they must return from space. It teaches techniques to survive in remote locations both on land and in the sea. EVA covers basic operations for activities outside the ISS. For this purpose, astronauts don a special "space suit" and train in a simulated weightless environment underwater (see Fig. 2). Hyperbaric (altitude) chamber training is provided in case astronauts experience a depressurization or a low-pressure environment.